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Fire Protection Systems:

Automatic sprinkler systems:

Wet pipe systems. Wet pipe sprinkler systems are the most common type of fire sprinkler systems. They’re reliable because they are simple, composed of only automatic sprinklers and, usually, an automatic alarm check valve. An automatic water supply provides water under pressure to the system piping. All of the piping is filled with water. And, when the automatic sprinkler is exposed to sufficient heat, the heat-sensitive element (glass bulb or fusible link) releases, allowing water to flow from that sprinkler.

Dry pipe systems. Dry pipe systems should only be used in spaces in which the ambient temperature may be cold enough to freeze the water in a wet pipe system, rendering the system inoperable. In a dry pipe system, the piping is filled with maintenance air at a lower pressure than the water supply pressure, and a large valve clapper prevents the water pressure from forcing water into the piping. When one or more of the automatic sprinklers is exposed to sufficient heat, the valve opens, allowing the maintenance air to vent from that sprinkler. As the air pressure in the piping drops, water is allowed to enter the piping system. Water flow from sprinklers is delayed until the air is vented from the sprinklers. For this reason, dry pipe systems are usually not as effective in fire control during the initial stages of the fire.

Deluge fire sprinkler systems are generally used for high hazard industrial and commercial applications, such as power plants,
chemical processing facilities, and aircraft hangars, where high volume, high velocity suppression is necessary to prevent the spread of fire to other areas of the facility.

A Deluge System is a fixed fire protection system in which the pipe system is empty until the deluge valve operates to distribute pressurized water from open nozzles or sprinklers. Deluge systems are more complex than wet pipe and dry systems because they contain more components and equipment. The deluge valve is activated by operation of a fire detection system installed in the same area as the sprinklers.

Various types of detection systems may be used, including smoke, heat, ultraviolet (UV), or infrared (IR) detection.

Pre-action: The system's discharge is a two-step process: First, the innovative detection system identifies smoke or heat, which activates a pre-action valve that allows water to flow into piping and effectively creates a wet pipe sprinkler system. Second, individual sprinkler heads release to let water flow onto the fire.

Pre-action systems are hybrids of wet, dry, and deluge systems, depending on the exact system goal. There are two main sub-types of
pre-action systems: single interlock, and double interlock.

 

The operation of single interlock systems are similar to dry systems except that these systems require that a “preceding” fire detection event, typically the activation of a heat or smoke detector, takes place prior to the “action” of water introduction into the system’s piping by opening the pre-action valve, which is a mechanically latched valve (i.e. similar to a deluge valve). In this way, the system is essentially converted from a dry system into a wet system. The intent is to reduce the undesirable time delay of water delivery to sprinklers that is inherent in dry systems. Prior to fire detection, if the sprinkler operates, or the piping system develops a leak, loss of air pressure in the piping will activate a trouble alarm. In this case, the pre-action valve will not open due to loss of supervisory pressure, and water will not enter the piping.

 

The operation of double interlock systems are similar to deluge systems except that automatic sprinklers are used. These systems require that both a “preceding” fire detection event, typically the activation of a heat or smoke detector, and an automatic sprinkler operation take place prior to the “action” of water introduction into the system’s piping. Activation of either the fire detectors alone, or sprinklers alone, without the concurrent operation of the other, will not allow water to enter the piping. Because water does not enter the piping until a sprinkler operates, double interlock systems are considered as dry systems in terms of water delivery times, and similarly require a larger design area.

 

Standpipe systems:

standpipe is a type of rigid water piping which is built into multi-story buildings in a vertical position or bridges in a horizontal position, to which fire hoses can be connected, allowing manual application of water to the fire.

When standpipes are fixed into buildings, the pipe is in place
permanently with an intake usually located near a road or driveway, so
that a fire engine can supply water to the system. The standpipe extends into the building to supply fire fighting
water to the interior of the structure via hose outlets, often located
between each floor in stairwells in high rise buildings. Dry standpipes
are not filled with water until needed in fire fighting. Fire fighters often bring hoses
in with them and attach them to standpipe outlets located along the pipe throughout the structure. This type of standpipe may also be installed horizontally on bridges.

 

 A "wet" standpipe is filled with water and is pressurized at all times. In contrast to dry standpipes, which can be used only by firefighters,
wet standpipes can be used by building occupants. Wet standpipes generally already come with hoses so that building occupants may fight
fires quickly. This type of standpipe may also be installed horizontally on bridges.

 

Portable fire extinguishers:

Ordinary Combustibles, Flammable Liquids, Ordinary Combustibles, Flammable Liquids, or Electrical Equipment, Flammable Liquids, Metals, Kitchen Fires, Electrical Equipment.

 

 

 

Fire alarm and detection systems:

 

Emergency alarms

Smoke control